Here you can find publications of  CELL members.


Houben, S. T., Otgaar, H., Roelofs, J., Smeets, T., & Merckelbach, H. (2020). Increases of correct memories and spontaneous false memories due to eye movements when memories are retrieved after a time delay. Behaviour Research and Therapy125, 1-9.


Calado, B., Otgaar, H., & Muris, P. (in press). Are children better witnesses than adolescents? Developmental trend in different false memory paradigms. Journal of Child Custody

Dodier, O., Melinder, A., Otgaar, H., Payoux, M., & Magnussen, S. (in press). Psychologists and Psychiatrists in Court: What do they know about Eyewitness Memory? A Comparison of Experts in Inquisitorial and Adversarial Legal Systems. Journal of Police and Criminal Psychology.

Kloft, L., Otgaar, H., Blokland, A., Garbaciak, A., Monds, L. A., & Ramaekers, J. G. (2019). False memory formation in cannabis users: a field study. Psychopharmacology, 1-12.

Houben, S. T. L., Otgaar, H., Roelofs, J., & Merckelbach, H. (2019). EMDR and false memories: A response to Lee, de Jongh, and Hase (2018). Clinical Psychological Science, 7, 405-406.

Howe, M.L., & Otgaar, H. (in press). Towards a complete understanding of memory: Theoretically important failures to reject the null hypothesis. Memory

Howe, M.L., & Otgaar, H. (in press). Debunking the many myths of memory. Taylor & Francis

Mangiulli, I., Lanciano, T., Van Oorsouw, K., Jelicic, M., & Curci, A. (2019). Do reminders of the crime reverse the memory-undermining effect of simulating amnesia?. Memory & Cognition, 1-11.

Mangiulli, I., Van Oorsouw, K., Curci, A., & Jelicic, M. (2019). Retrieval-induced forgetting in the feigning amnesia for a crime paradigm. Frontiers in psychology, 10, 928.

Merckelbach, H., Dalsklev, M., van Helvoort, H., Boskovic, I., & Otgaar, H. (in press). Symptom reports are susceptible to misinformation. Psychology of Consciousness: Theory, Research, and Practice

Muris, P., Otgaar, H., Meesters, C., Heutz, A., van den Hombergh, M. (in press). Self-compassion and adolescents’ positive and negative cognitive reactions to daily life problems. Journal of Child and Family Studies.

Muris, P., Otgaar, H., & Pfattheicher, S. (2019). Stripping the forest from the rotten trees: Compassionate self-responding is a way of coping, but reduced uncompassionate self-responding mainly reflects psychopathology. Mindfulness, 10, 196-199. 

Otgaar, H., Bücken, C., Bogaard, G., Wade, K., Hopwood, A., 

Scoboria, A., & Howe, M. (in press). Nonbelieved Memories in The False Memory Archive. Journal of Applied Research in Memory and Cognition.

Otgaar, H., Chan, J.C.K., Calado, B., & La Rooy, D. (2019). Immediate interviewing increases children’s suggestibility in the short term, but not in the long term. Legal and Criminological Psychology, 24, 24-40.

Otgaar, H., & Howe, M.L. (in press). When children’s testimonies are used as evidence: How children’s accounts may impact child custodial decisions. Journal of Child Custody.

Otgaar, H., Howe, M.L., Muris, P., & Merckelbach, H. (in press). Associative activation as a mechanism underlying false memory formation. Clinical Psychological Science.

Otgaar, H., Howe, M.L., Muris, P., & Merckelbach, H. (in press). Dealing with false memories in children and adults: Recommendations for the legal arena. Policy Insights from the Behavioral and Brain Sciences.

Otgaar, H., Howe, M. L., Patihis, L., Merckelbach, H., Lynn, S. J., Lilienfeld, S., & Loftus, E. (2019). The Return of the Repressed: The Persistent and Problematic Claims of Long-Forgotten Trauma. Perspectives on Psychological Science.

Otgaar, H., La Rooy, D., Horselenberg, R., Herskowitz, I., de Ruiter, C., Blezer, L., & Kidane, R. (in press). Assessing the quality of child investigative interviewing in the Netherlands. Applied Cognitive Psychology

Patihis, L., Otgaar, H., & Merckelbach, H. (in press). Expert witnesses, dissociative amnesia, and extraordinary remembering: Response to Brand et al. Psychological Injury and Law.

Romeo, T., Otgaar, H., Landström, S., & Smeets, T. (in press). The impact of lying about a traumatic virtual reality experience on memory. Memory & Cognition

Romeo, T., Otgaar, H., Smeets, T., Landström, S., & Jelicic, M. (in press). The memory impairing effects of simulated amnesia for a mock crime. Applied Cognitive Psychology.

Sauerland, M., Brackmann, N., & Otgaar, H. (in press). Rapport: Little effect on children’s, adolescents’, and adults’ statement quantity, accuracy, and suggestibility. Journal of Child Custody.

van Helvoort, D., Otgaar, H., & Merckelbach, H. (in press). Worsening of Self-Reported Symptoms Through Suggestive Feedback. Clinical Psychological Science.

Wang, J., Otgaar, H., Howe, M. L., & Zhou, C. (2019). A self-reference false memory effect in the DRM paradigm: Evidence from Eastern and Western samples. Memory & Cognition, 47, 76-86.

Wang, J., Otgaar, H., Smeets, T, Howe,

M. L., & Zhou, C. (2019). Manipulating memory associations changes decision-making preferences in a preconditioning task. Consciousness and Cognition, 69, 103-112.


Calado, B., Otgaar, H., Luke, T. J., & Landström (2018). Remembering what never occurred? Children's false memories for repeated experiences. InMind, 37.

Houben, S. T. L., Otgaar, H., Roelofs, J., & Merckelbach, H. (2018). Lateral eye movements increase false memory ratesClinical Psychological Science, 6, 610-616. 

Mangiulli, I., van Oorsouw, K., Curci, A., Merckelbach, H., & Jelicic, M. (2018). Feigning Amnesia Moderately Impairs Memory for a Mock Crime Video. Frontiers in psychology, 9:625.

Mangiulli, I., Lanciano, T., Jelicic, M., van Oorsouw, K., Battista, F., & Curci, A. (2018). Can implicit measures detect source information in crime-related amnesia?. Memory, 26, 1019-1029.

Merckelbach, H., Houben, S.T.L., Dandachi-Fitzgerald, Otgaar, H., & Roelofs, J. (2018). Als psychotherapie faalt [When psychotherapy fails]. De Psycholoog, 10, 10-21.

Muris, P., van der Broek, M., Otgaar, H., Oudenhoven, I., & Lennartz, J. (2018). Good and bad sides of self-compassion: A face validity check of the Self-Compassion Scale and an investigation of its relations to coping and emotional symptoms in non-clinical adolescents. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 27, 2411-2421.

Otgaar, H. (2018). Zelfbeheersing kost toch geen moeite. Skepter.

Otgaar, H., & Baker, A. (2018). When lying changes memory for the truth. Memory, 26, 2-14.

Otgaar, H., Houben, S. T. L., & Howe, M.L. (2018). Methods of studying false memory. In B.L. Schwartz & H. Otani (Eds.). Research methods in human memory research.

Otgaar, H., Howe, M.L., Merckelbach, H., & Muris, P. (2018). Who is the better eyewitness? Sometimes children but at other times adults. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 27, 378-385.

Otgaar, H., Wang, J., Fränken, J., & Howe, M.L. (2018). Believing does not equal remembering: The effects of social feedback and objective evidence on belief in occurrence, belief in accuracy, and recollection. Acta Psychologica, 191, 271-280.

Otgaar, H., Romeo, T., Ramakers, N., & Howe, M.L. (2018). Forgetting having denied: The “amnesic” consequences of denial. Memory & Cognition, 46, 520-529.

Romeo, T., Otgaar, H., & Landström, S. (2018). Coping with sexual abuse. Psychological Research on Urban Society.

Scoboria, A., Otgaar, H., & Mazzoni, G. (2018). Defending and reducing belief in memories: An experimental laboratory analogue. Memory & Cognition.

Van Impelen, A., Jelicic, M., Otgaar, H., & Merckelbach, H. (2018). Detecting feigned cognitive impairment with Schretlen’s Malingering Scale Vocabulary and Abstraction Test. European Journal of Psychological Assessment.

Vredeveldt, A., Otgaar, H., Merckelbach, H., & van Koppen, P. (2018). Het Rechtspsychologisch Deskundigenrapport. Expertise & Recht.

Wang, J., Otgaar, H., Howe, M. L., Lippe, F., & Smeets, T. (2018). The nature and consequences of false memories for visual stimuli. Journal of Memory and Language,101, 124-135.

Wang, J., Otgaar, H., Smeets, T., Howe, M. L., Merckelbach, H., & Zhou, C. (2018). Consequences of false memories in eyewitness testimony: A review and implications for Chinese legal practice. Psychological Research on Urban Society, 1, 12-25.


Alberts, H., Otgaar, H., & Kalagi, J. (2017). Minding the source: The impact of mindfulness on source monitoring. Legal and Criminological Psychology, 22, 302-313.

Brackmann, N., Otgaar, H., Sauerland, M. & Roos af Hjlemsater, E. (2017). Testing a new approach to improve recall in different ages: Providing witnesses with a model statement. Translational Issues in Psychological Science, 3, 131-142.

Merckelbach, H., & Otgaar, H. (2017. De duizend – of tweeduizend? – onschuldigen van Derksen. Nederlands Juristenblad, 7, 450-453.

Merckelbach, H., & Otgaar, H. (2017). Merckelbach en Otgaar antwoorden. Nederlands Juristenblad, 17, 808-809.

Muris, P., Merkelbach, H., Otgaar, H., & Meijer, E.H. (2017). The malevolent side of human nature: A meta-analysis and critical review of the literature on the Drak Triad (narcissism, Machiavellianism, and psychopathy). Perspectives on Psychological Science, 12, 183-204.

Sauerland, M., Krix, A.C., Otgaar, H., & Merckelbach, H. (2017). “Ik weet het zeker, meneer de agent!” Waarom subjectieve zekerheid iets zegt over de accuraatheid van een ooggetuigenidentificatie. Expertise & Recht, 5, 198-205.

De Ruiter, C., & Otgaar, H. (2017). Moedige Griet op de Beeck verdient lof. Trouw.

Otgaar, H., Muris, P., Howe, M.L., & Merckelbach, H. (2017). What drives false memories in psychopathology? A case for associative activation. Clinical Psychological Science, 5, 1048-1069.

Otgaar, H., Howe, M., & Muris, P. (2017). Maltreatment increases spontaneous false memories but decreases suggestion-induced false memories in children. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 35, 376-391.

Otgaar, H., Moldoveany, G., Wang, J., & Howe, M.L. (in press). Exploring the consequences of nonbelieved memories in the DRM paradigm. Memory.

Otgaar, H., Howe, M.L., Helvoort, D., & Brackmann, N. (in press). Eliminating age differences in suggestibility and memory conformity effects. Developmental Psychology.

Otgaar, H., De Ruiter, C., Howe, M.L., Hoetmer, L., & Van Reekum, P. (in press). A case study concerning children’s false memories of abuse: Recommendations regarding expert witness work. Psychiatry, Psychology, and Law.

Otgaar, H., Merckelbach, H., Jelicic, M., & Smeets, T. (2017). The potential for false memories is bigger than Brewin and Andrews suggest. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 31, 24-25.

Otgaar, H., & Howe, M.L. (2017). How to know what’s true in the courtroom? Problems with deception, lies, and false memories. Oxford University Press.

Otgaar, H., & Howe, M.L. (2017). When spontaneous statements can not be trusted: False memories in children and adults. In H. Otgaar & M.L. Howe (Eds.). How to know what’s true in the courtroom? Problems with deception, lies, and false memories. Oxford University Press.

Otgaar, H., & Howe, M.L. (2017). False memories, lies, and malingering in the legal arena. In H. Otgaar & M.L. Howe (Eds.). How to know what’s true in the courtroom? Problems with deception, lies, and false memories. Oxford University Press.

Otgaar, H., & Howe, M.L. (2017). Spontaneous false memories in the legal arena. In H. Otgaar & M.L. Howe (Eds.). How to know what’s true in the courtroom? Problems with deception, lies, and false memories. Oxford University Press.

Otgaar, H., Scoboria, A., & Mazzoni, G. (2017). Theoretical and applied issues related to autobiographical belief and recollection. Memory, 25, 865- 868.

Smeets, T., Merckelbach, H., Jelicic, M., & Otgaar, H. (2017). Dangerously neglecting courtroom realities. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 31, 26- 27.

Van de Ven, V., Otgaar, H., & Howe, M.L. (2017). A neurobiological account of false memories. In H. Otgaar & M.L. Howe (Eds.). How to know what’s true in the courtroom? Problems with deception, lies, and false memories. Oxford University Press.

Wang, J., Otgaar, H., Howe, M.L., Smeets, T., Merckelbach, H., & Nahouli, Z. (2017). Undermining belief in false memories leads to less efficient problem-solving. Memory, 25, 910-921.


Brackmann, N., Otgaar, H., Sauerland, M., & Howe, M.L. (2016). The effect of testing on the formation of children’s and adults’ false memories. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 30, 785-794.

Brackmann, N., Otgaar, H., Sauerland, M., & Jelicic, M. (2016). When children are the least vulnerable to false memories: A true report or a case of autosuggestion? Journal of Forensic Sciences, 61, S271 S275.

Hagger, M.S., Chatzisarantis, N.L.D. Alberts, H., …Otgaar, H.,… Zwienenberg, M. (2016). A multi-lab pre-registered replication of the ego depletion effect. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 11, 546-573. ​

Muris, P., Otgaar, H., & Petrocchi, N. (2016). Protection as the mirror image of psychopathology: Further critical notes on the Self-Compassion Scale. Mindfulness, 7, 787-790.

Otgaar, H., Howe, M.L., Smeets, T., & Wang, J. (2016). Denial-induced forgetting: False denials undermine memory, but external denials undermine belief. Journal of Applied Research in Memory and Cognition, 5, 168-175.

Otgaar, H., Scoboria, A., Howe, M.L., Moldoveanu, G,. & Smeets, T. (2016). Challenging memories in children and adults using an imagination inflation procedure. Psychology of Consciousness: Theory, Research, and Practice, 3, 270-283.

Otgaar, H., Howe, M.L., Brackmann, N., & Wang, J. (2016). When children are the worst and best eyewitnesses: Factors behind the development of false memory. Edited by R. Nash & J.Ost. Current issues in memory. Psychology Press.

Otgaar, H., Van Ransem, R., Pauw, C., & Horselenberg, R. (2016). Improving children’s interviewing methods? The effects of drawing and practice on children’s memories for an event. Journal of Police and Criminal Psychology, 31, 279-287.

Otgaar, H., Cleere, C., Merckelbach, H.,  Peters, M., Jelicic, M., & Lynn, S.J. (2016). On the alleged memory undermining effects of daydreaming. Consciousness & Cognition, 39, 8-17.

Otgaar, H., Howe, M.L., Brackmann, N., & Smeets, T. (2016). The malleability of developmental trends in neutral and negative memory illusions. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 145, 31-55.

Otgaar, H., & Merckelbach, H. (2016). Praten kan wel kwaad: waar is de bijsluiter? PsychoPraktijk, 8, 10-11.

Sauerland, M., Raymaekers, L.H.C, Otgaar, H., Memon, A., Waltjen, T., Nivo, M., Slegers, C., Broers, N., & Smeets, T. (2016). Stress, stress-induced cortical responses, and eyewitness identification performance. Behavioral Sciences & the Law, 34, 580-594.

Van Can, S., Dodier, O., Otgaar, H., & Verkampt, F. (2016). The benefits of multiple recollection strategies on adolescents’ testimonies: Quality versus within-statement consistency? Journal of Forensic Practice, 18, 118-130.

Van de Ven, V., Otgaar, H., & Howe, M.L. (in press). A neurobiological account of false memories. In H. Otgaar & M.L. Howe (Eds.). How to know what’s true in the courtroom? Problems with deception, lies, and false memories. Oxford University Press.


Otgaar, H., Howe, M.L., Clark, A., Wang, J., & Merckelbach, H. (2015). What if you went to the police and accused your uncle of abuse? Misunderstanding concerning the benefits of memory distortion: A commentary on Fernandez (2015). Consciousness and Cognition, 33, 286-290.

Wang, J., Otgaar, H., Howe, M. L., Smeets, T., & Merckelbach, H. (2015). Nonbelieved memories: about what will occur when you do not believe in your memories. In-Mind Magazine, 11.


Otgaar, H., Howe, M. L., Memon, A, & Wang, J. (2014). The development of differential mnemonic effects of false denials and forced confabulations. Behavioral Science & The Law, 32, 718-731.


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